The aim of the study was to assess, among people living with HIV, knowledge of their latest HIV viral load (VL) and CD4 count.

Each year, the EMCDDA asks its partners to nominate papers focusing on illicit drugs or new psychoactive substances. Each nominated paper classified according to the following research fields: basic biological, neurobiological and behavioural research (including aetiological and addictive behaviour research); population based research and clinical epidemiology (including site surveys, ethnographic studies and acute toxicity studies); demand reduction (including prevention, treatment, harm reduction, reintegration and clinical treatment research); supply, supply reduction and crime; drug policy (including laws, economic issues and strategies); other topics.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) now means that people living with HIV can remain healthy into old age. Some people experience side effects when taking treatment long term and growing older with HIV can increase the chance of experiencing normal illnesses associated with later life. It’s important to meet up regularly with your health professional for tests and to discuss any concerns you may have.

It is often said that has the US has the highest incarceration rate in the world. Is that true? Yes. Statistics from sources like the World Prison Brief, an online database providing a look into prison systems around the world, show that America houses more than two million inmates — nearly 500,000 more than China, which is the next highest on the list.

How does the war on drugs affect women? Is it really so different from how it affects men? Our knowledge was very limited before we interviewed the participants of an international workshop in Budapest.

Only a handful of countries are on course to achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) target of eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a major public health concern by 2030, according to a study published in the Journal of Virus Eradication. Investigators estimated progress towards elimination by examining 2016 data on rates of cure after therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), HCV-related deaths and new HCV infections. An overall reduction in prevalence of 0.71% was observed in the 91 countries included in the study, and global prevalence fell by just 0.4%.

This report argues that this rationale for continuing with an enforcement-led approach to drugs is poorly supported by empirical research, and that alternative policies – in particular the decriminalisation of personal drug possession or the introduction of legally regulated drug markets – can produce better outcomes while also avoiding dramatic increases in use. It also makes the case that overall levels of drug use are not an accurate indicator of levels of drug-related harm, and should not be considered as such.

Each year, more than half of HIV diagnoses in the UK are in gay and bisexual men. A new study paints a picture of the complex reasons, including chemsex, use of dating apps, childhood trauma and stressful life events, that are associated with gay men acquiring the virus. Because of the success of HIV medication in treating HIV and extending life expectancy, changing ideas about how serious it is to have HIV was also seen to be a factor.

The number of Americans on parole or probation can be “significantly” reduced without endangering public safety, a coalition of the country’s leading community corrections executives, criminologists and advocates said Monday.

Prisons are enormous social machines for producing something we don’t want to produce. And with 86,413 locked-up prisoners, we’re producing it at record levels. I was put away for a short, sharp shock at 14 for stealing a bike. I was then given a three-to-five-year sentence at 15 for stealing £5. And as I raised in last week’s Lords crossbench debate on prison overcrowding, I also failed at school – as did most of my fellow inmates and virtually every person I meet in prisons today.

In September, 2016, Donald Trump delivered a speech at the Economic Club of New York. “Today, I’m going to outline a plan for American economic revival,” he said. “It is a bold, ambitious, forward-looking plan to massively increase jobs, wages, incomes, and opportunities for the people of our country.” He went on to talk about lowering taxes and removing regulations, renegotiating trade deals and building a border wall. But he overlooked one of the most pressing issues facing the American economy today: the opioid crisis.

The World Health Organization’s most recent data on global deaths has good news for the African continent, including fewer people dying of HIV/AIDS and malaria.

Young adults represent a growing proportion of the number of people living with HIV in the USA, but they are at high-risk of disengaging from care when transitioning from paediatric to adult services.

WHO guidelines now call for ‘test and treat’ strategies – initiating all people diagnosed with HIV on ART as soon as possible after diagnosis – as a way to decrease community viral load and reduce the rate of new HIV infections. Treatment as prevention (TasP) will only be effective alongside the scale up of testing programmes and ART adherence support.

The Catalonian parliament has recently adopted a new law to regulate the cannabis market. We interviewed Òscar Parés, the deputy director of the International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service to learn more about the cannabis reconquista movement in Spain.

In the Ukrainian tourist destination of Odessa, a port on the Black Sea, holidaymakers mingle with internally displaced people from the country’s war-torn east, local Roma, students, and economic migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus, Africa and Asia.

The campaign to cut off heroin supplies has encouraged the growth of labs producing the opioid. We need to instead embrace a public health approach.

Prohibiting the use of drugs in the Northern Territory has failed, Assistant Minister Jeff Collins says, and he will push the Government to look at decriminalising personal use quantities of drugs.

The first governmental account of nationwide drug deaths in 2016 shows overdose deaths growing even faster than previously thought.

Adolescents is the only age group where HIV rates are increasing faster in Africa, according to medical experts.